Evaluación de la disfunción diastólica y consideraciones perioperatorias

William Díaz Herrera

Resumen


Se revisó la importancia del hallazgo de disfunción diastólica en el peri-operatorio como predictor de morbimortalidad debido a eventos cardiovasculares mayores. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos de PubMed, Cochrane, Scielo, Bireme, Lilacs y Google Scholar. Se revisaron 250 artículos y se seleccionaron 55 que por criterio de los autores están relacionados directamente con el tema. Se observó que gran porcentaje de los pacientes con falla cardiaca tienen función sistólica preservada y que tener disfunción diastólica es un factor de riesgo independiente para presentar eventos cardiovasculares mayores en el perioperatorio. La disfunción diastólica ha demostrado ser un factor de riesgo independiente para eventos cardiovasculares mayores en cirugía no cardiaca. La importancia del uso de la ecocardiografía en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de la disfunción diastólica es cada vez mayor. La disfunción diastólica continúa siendo una entidad subdiagnosticada. El Manejo terapéutico debe ser estrecho y cauteloso evitando las variaciones hemodinámicas bruscas y adelantándose a la hipotensión con las medidas farmacológicas adecuadas y del manejo de líquidos, apoyados en un estricto control perioperatorio con medición de la presión arterial invasiva y ecocardiograma transesofágico.

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Referencias


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