Morbimortalidad del recién nacido a término precoz en el hospital Hipólito Unanue de Tacna durante los años 2000 a 2014

Manuel Ticona Rendón, Diana Huanco Apaza

Resumen


Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia, tasa de cesárea y riesgos de morbimortalidad del recién nacido a término precoz (RNTP). Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, analítico. Se incluyó a neonatos únicos vivos a término, nacidos en el hospital Hipólito Unanue de Tacna durante los años 2000 a 2014 (n=45332). Se comparó a los nacidos a termino precoz de 37 a 38 6/7 semanas (n=11276), y los nacidos a termino completo de 39 a 41 6/7 semanas (n=34056). Se utilizó frecuencia y tasa por 100 nacidos vivos, odds ratio (OR) con  intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%), regresión logarítmica y prueba “t” para muestrasindependientes. Se utilizó la base de datos del Sistema Informático Perinatal. Resultados: La frecuencia de nacidos a término precoz fue 22,5 por 100 nacidos vivos, con un crecimiento logarítmico significativo (p=0,03). Representó 24,9% de todos los recién nacidos a término.  La tasa de cesárea se incrementó de 31,2% a 51,1% y su crecimiento fue similar al de los érmino completo. Se asoció  l RNTP con mayor probabilidad de tener bajo peso al nacer (OR:5,33; IC 95%: 4,50-6,30), ser pequeño para la edad gestacional (OR:3,14; IC 95%: 2,69- 3,66), nacer por cesárea (OR: 3,15; IC 95%: 3,01-3,29), tener estancia hospitalaria de 3 días a  más (OR: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,39-1,54), morbilidad respiratoria (OR: 1,81; IC 95%: 1,38-2,37) como neumonía (OR:3,02; IC 95%: 1,70-5,38), membrana hialina (OR: 4,17; IC 95%: 1,56-11,33) y taquipnea transitoria (OR: 2,95; IC 95%: 1,79-4,85); y malformaciones congénitas (OR: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,17-1,82), hiperbilirrubinemia (OR: 1,23; IC 95%: 1,02-1,49) y mortalidad neonatal  (OR: 2,17; IC 95%: 1,45-3,23). Conclusión: La frecuencia de recién nacidos a término precoz en el hospital Hipólito Unanue de Tacna se incrementó en los últimos 15 años y se asoció a  mayor riesgo de problemas respiratorios y mortalidad neonatal.

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